Paeonia californica(1)

Perennials totally glabrous. Roots slightly fusiform—thickened, up to 3 cm in diameter. Caudex (rhizomes) up to 8 cm long. Stems 40-70 cm tall, entirely green, up to 1.2 cm in diameter, usually with sterile or fertile branches. Lower leaves ternate, very occasionally nearly biternate; petioles 4-13 cm long; leaflets 3 in number, each leaflet with three or several segments, each segment with two or several lobes, rarely entire, segments and/or lobes totalling 33-78 in number; segments 3-8 cm long, 0.4-2.0 cm wide; lobes linear to lanceolate, usually acute, sometimes mucronate at the apex, 0.2-3.0 cm long, 0.2-1.2 cm wide. Flowers terminal, solitary but usually several, up to 6 in number on a stem, pendent; involucrate bracts usually 1 or 2 in number, leaf-like; sepals 3 or 4 in number, rounded, green or green but purple at the periphery, or purple, 1.2-2.0 cm long, 1.2-2.0 cm wide, as large as or slightly smaller than petals; petals 6-8 in number, entire, purple, dull dark red, dark purple red or brownish purple, 1.2-2.2 cm long, 1.0-2.0 cm wide: stamens numerous; filaments yellow; anthers yellow; disk fleshy, yellow, dentate, teeth variable in shape, 2.5-6 mm high; carpels 3, less frequently 2, occasionally 4, 5 or 6 in number, glabrous; stigmas sessile, 3 mm long, 2 min wide, horizontal. Follicles cylindrical, 2.5-4.2 cm long, 1.1-1.7 cm in diameter. Seeds oblong, black, 10-12 mm long, 5.5-6 mm in diameter.

Chromosome number: 2n = 10 (diploid).

Growing from coastal areas with altitudes of only 30 m to mountain areas with altitudes up to 1,200 m at Corte Madera Ranch, San Diego County. It occurs mostly in chaparral, or openings, or on edges of chaparral and Quercus Woods, with Adenostemma fasciculata, Erodictyon crassifolium, Eriogonum fasciculata, Rhus laurina, Salvia mellifera and Artemisia californica most frequently found as associated plants. It prefers dry granite soils. Confined to the northern-most Baja California of Mexico and to S California, USA.

Paeonia californica is recognised as an independent species by most taxonomists. However, Brewer and Watson (1876), Jepson (1909, 1923) and Munz (1935) treated it as synonymous with P. brownii Douglas ex Hook., Whereas Lynch (1890) reduced it to a variety of P. brownii. Stebbins (1938) clearly documented the distinctness of P. californica from P. brownii, but Halda (1997, 2004) still recognised the former as a subspecies within the latter. We made field observations and carried out population sampling in 2005 in southern California with the assistance of Dr J. Z. Qiu, and in the Blue Mountains guided by Paige Woodward from Canada. We sampled two populations in California and three in Oregon. In addition, we conducted field observation on P. brownii in 1999 in Idaho, guided by Dr jenny Q. Y. Xiao. According to our observations and population samples, the lower leaves of P. californica are always ternate, a unique aspect in the genus, whereas they are always biternate in P. brownii. The carpels number mostly three (27/34, i.e. 80%), less frequently two, occasionally four, five or six in P. californica, but mostly five (29/39, i.e. 74.4%), rarely four, very occasionally six or three in P. brownii. The number of final lobes on the lower leaves ranges from 33 to 78 in P. californica and 59—110 in P. brownii, and these two ranges are statistically discontinuous. Our cluster analysis (the unweighted pair-groups method using arithmetic averages, i.e. UPGMA) shows that these two entities are morphologically distinct and should be better treated as two separate species.

Mount Woodson in Winter/Spring ❄️🌱#mountwoodsontrail #ramonacalifornia #quercusagrifolia ....
Mount Woodson in Winter/Spring ❄️🌱#mountwoodsontrail #ramonacalifornia #quercusagrifolia #andricusquercuscalifornicus #ribesaureum #paeoniacalifornica #flavopunctelia #bryopsida #stereum #arctostaphylosglandulosa #canislatrans
Paeonia californica - a peony endemic to the south coast that goes dormant when the soil dries o....
Paeonia californica - a peony endemic to the south coast that goes dormant when the soil dries out in summer. #paeoniacalifornica #peonies #summerdrygarden
California peonies (Paeonia californica) are one of my very favorite wildflowers. Went looking f....
California peonies (Paeonia californica) are one of my very favorite wildflowers. Went looking for this one last week and was glad to see them in bloom! The flowers nod downwards so I had to lay on the ground for a good shot while my dog looked on with concern... I’ve ...
The deep magenta shrouds some of the biggest forb fruits I’ve ever laid eyes upon. I under app....
The deep magenta shrouds some of the biggest forb fruits I’ve ever laid eyes upon. I under appreciate the CA Peony, maybe because it’s fairly common in my home range. Find this beauty hanging out under coastal scrub, chaparral, and oak wdlndz #paeonia #paeoniacalifornica #wildflowers #flower #flowers #californianativeplants #coastalscrub #santamonicamountains
California peony!!! #californiapeony #californianativeplants #paeoniacalifornica
California peony!!! #californiapeony #californianativeplants #paeoniacalifornica
#paeoniacalifornica #nativespecies #rarefind #inthefoothills #backyard #takeahike #wildpeony #sp....
#paeoniacalifornica #nativespecies #rarefind #inthefoothills #backyard #takeahike #wildpeony #springblossoms #springblooms #beautifulday @robbiesjewellery
Edible + medicinal plant hike #californiapeony #peony #paeoniacalifornica #nature #hiking #nativ....
Edible + medicinal plant hike #californiapeony #peony #paeoniacalifornica #nature #hiking #nativeplants #socal
California peonies (Paeonia californica) aren’t quite open yet along my favorite dog walking t....
California peonies (Paeonia californica) aren’t quite open yet along my favorite dog walking trail. These are one of my favorite flowers, and since they bloom so early in the season in my mind they kick off “wildflower season”. I’ll come back to check on these next weekend!
Shameless plug - ...
wild peony blooming 👌👏💜 #getlow #Paeoniacalifornica #mountainstrust #blooming #treepeop....
wild peony blooming 👌👏💜 #getlow #Paeoniacalifornica #mountainstrust #blooming #treepeople #coldcreekpreserve #purpleglobes
This looks like a wild peony, but the maroon edges are throwing me off.  Any ideas? It is growin....
This looks like a wild peony, but the maroon edges are throwing me off. Any ideas? It is growing in a sunny bank of a riparian zone amongst black sage, mugwort, California buckwheat and sagebrush #namethisplant #paeoniacalifornica #californianativeplant #californianativeplants #wildpeony
Gone are the dark crimson flowers and lacy green leaves of summer —replaced by pale, rattly po....
Gone are the dark crimson flowers and lacy green leaves of summer —replaced by pale, rattly pods, oblong seeds, and a curly scrollwork of deep browns. California peony, Paeonia californica is still a thing of beauty in this late season, if you stop a while to look. .
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Trying to hit a nice round number for my next California Native Plant Society donation so I’ve....
Trying to hit a nice round number for my next California Native Plant Society donation so I’ve added some discounted seconds pins to my Etsy shop. $1 from each purchase still goes to CNPS! Plenty of normal ones are still available too - link to my shop is in my ...
Just about 6 months of watching, waiting, checking every week. Hiking through the trash and glas....
Just about 6 months of watching, waiting, checking every week. Hiking through the trash and glass and littered mountains to get to my secret spot and harvest these wild California peony seeds. (Swipe for pics from February of this wild peony (Paeonia californica) in bloom) Don’t fret about them not ...
Fun Fact Friday! ..............The California Peony is native to Socal and is abundant in the Ch....
Fun Fact Friday! .............
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The California Peony is native to Socal and is abundant in the Chaparral Eco System! ..........
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This beauty blooms in December until May, in the summer it retreats underground! It is a drought tolerant plant and its root can actually rot if watered during ...
I ran out of chalk! End of the third (final) day. 12x12 for American Riviera Bank, Santa Barbara....
I ran out of chalk! End of the third (final) day. 12x12 for American Riviera Bank, Santa Barbara I Madonnari 2020.
#childrenscreativeproject #imadonline2020 #imadonnari #blackheadedgrosbeak #californiapeony #ojaifritillary #americanrivierabank
Found these beauties on our last camping trip. Truly enjoying Idaho and loving getting out of th....
Found these beauties on our last camping trip. Truly enjoying Idaho and loving getting out of the city with my partner on a regular basis ♥️🐺#californiapeony
...Locked downKnocked downI’m not down...#californiapeony #peony #california #peace #peaceful ....
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Locked down
Knocked down
I’m not down
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#californiapeony #peony #california #peace #peaceful #happy #happyplace #flowers #flower #flow #spring #springhassprung #finally #floweroftheday #flowersandmacro #photooftheday #naturelovers #flowerstagram #flowerstalking #naturalbeauty #friendsandfamily
Everything is a little strange and chaotic right now, but tell that to this California peony (Pa....
Everything is a little strange and chaotic right now, but tell that to this California peony (Paeonia californica) in the San Rafael Wilderness. To this particular plant, nothing is really out of the ordinary. It's just another day, another season in the shrublands.
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You can actually see the fruits/seed ...
California Peony. My favorite #californianativeplants ❤️ They’re elusive, subtle, difficul....
California Peony. My favorite #californianativeplants ❤️ They’re elusive, subtle, difficult to see in the flower and are beautiful plants
#californiapeony #springflowers
#getoutdoors #plantnative #sandiegooutdoors #ramonacalifornia #talkingoaksranch

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Footnotes:
  1. Hong, De-Yuan. “Peonies of the World. Taxonomy and phytogeography.” Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, 2010, pp. 103-105.[]

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